Emerald Gemstone

Synthetic, Duplicates, and Copies

Synthetic emerald, glass, fluorite, apatite, dioptase, onyx, aventurine quartz (dyed quartz is very common), and tourmaline.

Origin place or source country

Emerald is mainly mined in Colombia, Brazil, and Zambia. These countries are commercial producers. Other countries where it is mined include India (Rajasthan, Orissa), Pakistan, Afghanistan, Australia, and Russia. Colombian Panna is known as the finest in the world. Brazilians are generally darker, whereas Zambians are bluish.

Physical properties/chemical composition

The chemical composition of Panna stone is beryllium aluminum silicate (BE3AI2), and its hardness is 7.5–8 according to the Mohs scale. The specific gravity (S.G.) ranges between 2.68 and 2.80, and the refractive index (R.I.) lies between 1.57 and 1.60.


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